2. The quake is the largest ever measured in Haiti and yet another of a series of disasters to afflict the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere. They call for more oversight of accountability of reconstruction plans, asking, "Why have only 94,000 transitional shelters been built to date despite a stated goal of 125,000 in the first year? This will still be on our radar screen long after it's off the crawler at CNN. The 7.0-magnitude earthquake may have affected as many as 3 million people on the Caribbean island. Telling them to wash their hands when there's no water or soap is a slap in the face. Italy announced it would waive repayment of the €40 million it had loaned to Haiti, and the World Bank waived the country's debt repayments for five years.  According to a CBS report, US$3.1 billion had been pledged for humanitarian aid and was used to pay for field hospitals, plastic tarps, bandages, and food, plus salaries, transportation and upkeep of relief workers.  The government handed over control of the airport to the United States to hasten and ease flight operations, which had been hampered by the damage to the air traffic control tower. Two years ago tomorrow, January 12, a catastrophic 7.0-magnitude earthquake struck Port-au-Prince, Haiti, leveling thousands of structures and killing hundreds of thousands of people.  Local and state agencies in South Florida, together with the US government, began implementing a plan ("Operation Vigilant Sentry") for a mass migration from the Caribbean that had been laid out in 2003. , On 17 January 2010, British search and rescue teams were the first to reach Léogane, the town at the epicenter of the quake. The U.S. Department of Justice asserted that the UN was immune from prosecution in 2014. Corrections? Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In addition to earthquakes, it has been struck frequently by tropical cyclones, which have caused flooding and widespread damage. , A 2007 earthquake hazard study by C. DeMets and M. Wiggins-Grandison noted that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone could be at the end of its seismic cycle and concluded that a worst-case forecast would involve a 7.2 Mw earthquake, similar in size to the 1692 Jamaica earthquake. Epicenter at 19.38, -74.135.  Most of these workers were initially involved in the search for survivors at the organization's collapsed headquarters.. [clarification needed] While 20% lacked functioning toilets, this is higher than the population outside tent cities, where 50% lack toilets. In an interview, Kenneth Merten, the United States Ambassador to Haiti, stated that the US justice system would not interfere and that "the Haitian justice system will do what it has to do. According to the report, relief and recovery were at a standstill due to government inaction and indecision on the part of the donor countries. The group, known as the New Life Children's Refuge, did not have proper authorization for transporting the children and were arrested on kidnapping charges.  The Navy had conducted 336 air deliveries, delivered 32,400 US gallons (123,000 L) of water, 532,440 bottles of water, 111,082 meals and 9,000 lb (4,100 kg) of medical supplies by 20 January.  After a United Nations call for help for the people affected by the earthquake, Canada pledged an additional C$60 million in aid on 19 January 2010, bringing Canada's total contribution to C$135 million. The Haitian government’s official count was more than 300,000, but other estimates were considerably smaller. , In January 2012, two years since the quake, figures released by the United Nations show that of the nearly US$4.5 billion pledged for reconstruction projects in 2010 and 2011, only 43% has been delivered. The unpublished report put the death toll between 46,000 and 85,000 and put the number of displaced persons at 895,000, of which only 375,000 remained in temporary shelters. The nations capital, Port-au-Prince, a densely populated city located about 15 miles from the quakes epicenter, suffered widespread devastation. Shaking damage was more severe than for other quakes of similar magnitude due to the quake's shallow depth.  Rescue work intensified only slightly with the arrival of doctors, police officers, military personnel and firefighters from various countries two days after the earthquake. The government buried many in mass graves, some above-ground tombs were forced open so bodies could be stacked inside, and others were burned.  Mass graves were dug in a large field outside the settlement of Titanyen, north of the capital; tens of thousands of bodies were reported as having been brought to the site by dump truck and buried in trenches dug by earth movers.  Aid workers blamed US-controlled airport operations for prioritising the transportation of security troops over rescuers and supplies; evacuation policies favouring citizens of certain nations were also criticised. The 1842 earthquake that struck Cap-Haïtien was the worst earthquake in Haiti's history. , At the peak of the relief efforts, the airport was in a state of chaos. However, when no surface deformation was observed, the rupturing of the main strand of the fault system was ruled out as a cause. , Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders; MSF) reported that the hospitals that had not been destroyed were overwhelmed by large numbers of seriously injured people. In addition, less than one-third of the population was steadily employed. , Minister of Education Joel Jean-Pierre stated that the education system had "totally collapsed". When asked why the road had not been opened, Hazem el-Zein, head of the south-east division of the UN World Food Programme said that "We ask the same questions to the people in charge...They promise rapid response. It was set up in eight hours and began operations on the evening of 16 January. Haiti had not been hit by an earthquake of such enormity since the 18th century, the closest in force being a 1984 shock of magnitude 6.9. , In the aftermath of the earthquake, the government of Canada announced that it would match the donations of Canadians up to a total of C$50 million. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Troops Patrol Haiti, Filling a Void", "Haiti earthquake: looting and gun-fights break out", "Shattered city government in quake-ravaged Port-au-Prince in need of help itself", "Interview-Haitian education system 'totally collapsed, "Midwifery and Nursing School Destroyed by Haiti Earthquake", "A cultural agony in a nation where art is life", "World Bank to assess Haiti damage, plan rebuilding", "Earthquake in Haiti May Have Killed 'Over 100,000, "Apparel Makers Assess Damages in Haiti and Organize Donations", "Un barrage menace de céder à Grand-Goâve", Supplies begin to arrive in Haiti as aftershocks shake stunned nation, Problems with Haiti building standards outlined, Aid workers heading to Haiti fear for their safety, With Haiti's government in ruins, 'only God is in charge', Update 1-US takes control of Haiti airport to speed aid, Haiti's desperation rises as swell of bodies grows, Israeli medical, rescue workers help Haitians, No chance to give the dead a proper burial, "By the thousands, Haiti returns dead to the earth", Haiti's voodoo priests object to mass burials, "Help begins to trickle in, but desperate populace needs widespread relief", Tension grows in the border with Dominican Republic as Haitians try to escape, "Retribution swift and brutal for Haiti's looters", "Haiti quake: first British victim named as violence increases", "Doctor: Misinformation and Racism Have Frozen Recovery Effort at General Hospital in Port-au-Prince", "Haiti earthquake: law and order on a knife edge", After losing all else, Haitians are keeping the faith, Desperation grows: Mass grave found outside Port-au-Prince, "Haiti quake death toll well under 100,000", Haiti raises quake death toll on anniversary, "Haiti's Many Troubles Keep Bodies Uncounted", "Haitian Football Federation says 30 dead", "Florida College Scrambles for Information on Students in Haiti", "Report challenges Haiti earthquake death toll", "Tensions Mount in Haiti Amid Plea For Aid", "Dominican Republic aid to Haiti eases historic tensions", "Appeals for aid after quake strikes Haiti", "Wyclef Jean to be Haiti's roving ambassador", "Dominican Republic: Helping Neighboring Haiti After Earthquake", "República Dominicana envía a Haití equipos de emergencia para ayudar en el rescate de las víctimas", "The Icelandic urban SAR team has landed at Haiti", "Qatar joins global relief effort in Haiti", "American Red Cross says it has run out of medical supplies in Haiti", "Buena Park charity pack supplies for Haiti", "Trip to Port-au-Prince reveals more of the tragedy", "Carl Vinson, other ships headed to Haiti", Facebook users in Haiti say some access has been blocked, "Open Street Map community responds to Haiti crisis", Crisis mapping brings online tool to Haitian disaster relief effort, Poker Sites Matching Players' Donations to Haiti, Canada considers fast-tracking Haitian immigration, "Miami's 'Little Haiti' Neighborhood Waits For News", Haitians in U.S. On average, a plane would land or take off every two minutes. Delays in aid distribution led to angry appeals from aid workers and survivors, and looting and sporadic violence were observed. , On 31 May 2011, an unreleased draft report based on a survey commissioned by the US Agency for International Development (USAID) challenged the Haiti earthquake death toll and several damage estimates. The general disorder created by the earthquake—combined with the destruction of the country’s electoral headquarters and the death of UN officials working in concert with the Haitian electoral council—prompted Haitian Pres. , President Préval and government ministers used police headquarters near the Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport as their new base of operations, although their effectiveness was extremely limited; several parliamentarians were still trapped in the Presidential Palace, and offices and records had been destroyed. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The epicentre was just 25 km west of the capital Port-au-Prince and the focus was only 13km below the surface. Working in close partnership with other relief organizations, Real Medicine organized deployments of volunteer medical specialists to meet the needs of partner hospitals and clinics at the Haiti–Dominican Republic border and in Port-au-Prince, provided direct funding, medical supplies and pharmaceuticals to local health facilities and partner hospitals, provided advisory services and coordination to local health facilities, including physical therapy support, and coordinated mobile health outreaches, field clinics and food supplies to outlying villages overlooked in the relief effort. Indeed, since the establishment of a modern global seismic network in 1964, the Port-au-Prince region of southern Haiti has experienced only one earthquake of magnitude greater than 4.0, with sev-eral additional events occurring 100 km to the west.  The government's commitment to provide C$550 million in aid and debt relief and Canadians' individual donations amount to a total of C$770 million. The Léogâne fault, which cannot be observed at the surface, descends northward at an oblique angle away from the EPG fault system, and many geologists contend that the earthquake resulted from the slippage of rock upward across its plane of fracture.  An estimated three million people were affected by the quake. By June the American Red Cross had transferred the rebuilding efforts to the Haitian Red Cross.. , On 10 April, due to the potential threat of mudslides and flooding from the upcoming rainy season, the Haitian government began operations to move thousands of refugees to a more secure location north of the capital. " Edmond Mulet, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said, "I do not think we will ever know what the death toll is from this earthquake", while the director of the Haitian Red Cross, Jean-Pierre Guiteau, noted that his organization had not had the time to count bodies, as their focus had been on the treatment of survivors. In the second week of the aftermath, many urbanites began streaming into outlying areas, either of their own volition or as a result of governmental relocation programs engineered to alleviate crowded and unsanitary conditions. An international development consultant contracted by the commission was quoted as saying, "Look, you have to realize the IHRC [commission] was not intended to work as a structure or entity for Haiti or Haitians.  Reports from Sunday showed a record-breaking number of successful rescues, with at least 12 survivors pulled from Port-au-Prince's rubble, bringing the total number of rescues to 110. You may have experienced the common cold, but do you know what illness caused 20 million deaths in 1918? Makeshift camps sprung up to shelter them. " The Interim Haiti Recovery Commission, led by former US President Bill Clinton and Haitian Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive, had been set up to facilitate the flow of funds toward reconstruction projects in April 2010, but as of January 2011, no major reconstruction had started. Some began reporting having expended stocks of critical medical supplies such as antibiotics by 17 January. I can only think that their priority must be somewhere else. In the devastated urban areas, the displaced were forced to squat in ersatz cities composed of found materials and donated tents. January 12, 4:53 pm.  However, as late as 8 February 2010, survivors were still being discovered, as in the case of Evan Muncie, 28, found in the rubble of a grocery store. The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic, is seismically active and has a history of destructive earthquakes. By 2014 the number of camps had been more than halved, though some 100,000 people remained without permanent housing.  The Canadian government worked to expedite around 100 adoption cases that were already underway when the earthquake struck, issuing temporary permits and waiving regular processing fees; the federal government also announced that it would cover adopted children's healthcare costs upon their arrival in Canada until they could be covered under provincially administered public healthcare plans. The earthquake had a 7.0 magnitude. The river—the longest on the island and a major source of drinking water there—had been contaminated with fecal matter carrying a South Asian strain of cholera bacteria. , The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning immediately after the initial quake, but quickly cancelled it.  Ophelia Dahl, director of Partners in Health, reported, "there are hundreds of thousands of injured people. CNN Editorial Research. In November 2011 several organizations filed claims against the United Nations asking that it take responsibility for the outbreak, install new water and waste-management systems, and compensate those who fell ill or lost relatives to cholera. , thousands of bodies hangs in the postponement of municipal and senatorial elections scheduled for 2011 and 2012 recovery. 5.9 earthquake struck Haiti at 4:53 p.m. local time to continue their education in.... By other residents, St. Marc, Haiti, October 2010, before. Focus of the relief effort is central to Haitian recovery the focus was only below... The neighbouring Dominican Republic was the first country to give aid to Haiti, January 20 2010. Considerable damage to crops and settlements by tropical cyclones, which struck on January 12, 2010 incarcerated. 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